8888677771 | UPSC Key—10 October, 2023: State Legislative Assembly Elections, Kudumbashree and Claudia Goldin | UPSC Current Affairs News

Battle for 5 states begins Nov 7; results on Dec 3


Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story– MORE THAN 16 crore voters in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Telangana and Mizoram will elect new governments between November 7 and November 30, in what is being dubbed as the semi-final ahead of the Lok Sabha elections next year.

• What reforms and changes proposed by ECI in the upcoming elections?

• What is the process of election?

Festive offer

• What is the maximum and minimum strength of a legislative assembly?

• How is the legislative assembly’s strength determined?

• There is no uniformity in the organisation of state legislatures-Why?

• “Political representation is one of the unsettling aspects of interstate disparity that bubbles to the surface during assembly as well as general elections”-Critically analyse

• What happens after the Election Commission announces schedule for the polls?

• From which date the Model Code of Conduct is enforced and operational up to which date?

• What is the role of Election Commission in the matter?

• What are the salient features of the Model Code of Conduct?

• Whether Govt. can make transfers and postings of officials who are related to election work?

• Election Commission of India and Article 324 of the Constitution-Know in detail

• The independent and impartial functioning of the Election Commission-How it is ensured?

• Election Commission of India- Powers and Functions

• The Constitution of India has prescribed the qualifications (legal, educational, administrative or judicial) of the members of the Election Commission-True or False?

• The Constitution has not specified the term of the members of the Election Commission-True or False?

• Chief Election Commissioner and the two other Election Commissioners have equal powers-True or False?

• In case of difference of opinion amongst the Chief election commissioner and/or two other election commissioners, the matter is decided by the Supreme Court of India-Right or Wrong?

• All five states have seen an improvement in their electoral gender ratio, according to the Election Commission’s data-What exactly data’s saying?

• For Your Information-All five states have seen an improvement in their electoral gender ratio, according to the Election Commission’s data, with Chhattisgarh not only closing the gender gap but having more women voters than men for the first time.
While Chhattisgarh has 1,012 women voters for every 1,000 men, there are 1,063 women electors in Mizoram for every 1,000 men. In the previous elections held in 2018, Chhattisgarh had 995 women voters against 1,000 men, and Mizoram had 1,051 women. Mizoram has always had more women voters than men.
While the other states have also shown an improvement over 2018 in their electoral gender ratio, parity is yet to be achieved. Madhya Pradesh, which has the largest Assembly among the five states, has 945 women voters for every 1,000 men as opposed to 917 women in 2018. Rajasthan has 920 women voters against 914 in the previous elections. Telangana has 998 women voters against 982 last time.
The “inclusive election” campaign was the primary aim of the poll panel, with the focus on improving the electoral roll gender ratio in all states. Consequently, 23.6 lakh new women electors have been added in these five states.
Besides, the poll panel also focused on first-time voters in the 18-19 age group, enrolling 60 lakh such voters. This was largely because first-time voters had three additional windows to register themselves. In the past, they could only enroll once a year – in January. Through a recent amendment in the rules, three new such dates were added.
CEC Rajiv Kumar also appeared to have revived the debate on “revdi culture” or freebies. Taking questions from reporters after the press conference, he remarked that the freebies announced by political parties and state governments have a “tadka of populism” and that it is difficult for those who win polls to either implement these sops or stop this practice. He said the parties and states do not remember such sops in five years but announce them just a month or a fortnight before the election dates are announced.
“These announcements have a ‘tadka’ of populism. It is difficult to either implement or stop such (sops). Therefore, people have a right to know how these freebies will be implemented,” he said.
However, he added the matter is sub-judice and the Election Commission will act as soon as clarity is available.
Last year, the Supreme Court had referred petitions seeking ban on freebies distributed by political parties before elections to a three-judge bench, which it said will look into prayers for reconsidering the top court’s 2013 judgment in the S Subramaniam Balaji vs State of Tamil Nadu case. The 2013 verdict had held that such promises of freebies cannot be termed corrupt practice.
Last year, the EC had proposed a proforma for parties and states to explain how and when the promises made by them in their poll manifesto will be implemented. It states that while parties are free to tell what they will do, the voters have a right to know how it will be implemented and how much and when it will be done.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:  


Cauvery row: TN asks Centre to intervene, passes resolution


Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-IN a significant move, the Tamil Nadu Assembly on Monday adopted a resolution urging the Union government to direct the Karnataka government to release water to Tamil Nadu in line with the Supreme Court’s final judgment. The resolution, moved by Chief Minister M K Stalin, got support from all parties except the BJP, whose MLAs staged a walkout demanding its modification.

• Why is the Cauvery water-sharing dispute resurfacing?

• Cauvery Water Management Authority (CMA)-Know in brief

• Why the Tamil Nadu government sought the Supreme Court’s intervention recently in Cauvery water-sharing?

• How is the Cauvery water being shared?

• What is the Cauvery River Dispute?

• For Your Information-The Cauvery dispute between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka has its roots in two agreements from 1892 and 1924 between the Madras Presidency and the Mysore princely state. After Independence, as Karnataka expanded its irrigation network in the Cauvery basin, the dispute intensified. Karnataka has long held that the 1924 pact was “heavily in favour” of the Madras presidency.
As the Cauvery basin frequently faces distress due to weak southwest monsoons, the decades-old water-sharing row flares up, affecting the livelihoods of millions. With the adoption of this resolution, Tamil Nadu has once again put forth its stance, hoping for a resolution that ensures the welfare of its farmers and the general public.

• Map Work-Cauvery River (Source, drainage pattern, tributaries, distributaries, delta etc.)

• What does the Indian Constitution say about the water?

• What is interstate water dispute?

• Interstate water dispute-give some example

• What are the major causes of conflicts over water?

• How many interstate water disputes Tribunal are there in India?

• The resolution of water dispute is governed by which act?

• Inter-State River Water Disputes (ISRWD) Act, 1956-Know the highlight

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Cauvery water dispute: All you need to know

📍Cauvery verdict today: What is this dispute?

Previous year UPSC Prelims Question Covering similar theme:
📍Which of the following Protected Areas are located in Cauvery basin? (UPSC GS1, 2020)
1. Nagarhole National Park
2. Papikonda National Park
3. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve
4. Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

On its campus, NSG wages war against invader: vilayati kikar


Preliminary Examination: General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.

Main Examination: General Studies III: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-The country’s elite counter terror force has declared a ‘war’ — on an invasive plant species. In 1986, when the National Security Guard (NSG) was granted 1,600 acres abutting the Delhi-Ajmer highway in Manesar to build its campus, there were 98 functional borewells. At present, 63 of these have gone dry. The force has now decided to take on the vilayati kikar (Prosopis juliflora) populating its Aravali hills campus, after it was found to be responsible, among other reasons, for the depleting water table. Native to Mexico, vilayati kikar was brought to Delhi by the British in the 1920s, when the national capital was being built.

• What is Vilayati Kikar?

• What is an exotic species?

• And, what is the concept of invasive species?

• What is the difference between invasive and exotic species?

• What are the problems with exotic plant species?

• Which peak is the highest point of the Aravalli Range?

• The Aravalli Range is arguably the oldest geological feature on Earth, having its origin in which era?

• The Aravalli Range, is believed to be the oldest range of fold mountains in India-True or False?

• What is fold mountain?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:  

📍An Expert Explains: In alarm over Conocarpus trees, echo of faulty policies on invasive exotics


46L Kudumbashree women ‘back to school’


Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Over the next two months, more than 2,000 schools will open their doors on weekends for the 46 lakh women enrolled in Kerala’s flagship poverty alleviation mission, Kudumbashree. Back in school, the women will attend classes on adapting to the digital age, as the mission seeks to reorient itself. Launching the “back to school” programme at an event in Palakkad district’s Thrithala on October 1, Kerala Local Self Government Department Minister M B Rajesh said the Kudumbashree mission has made great strides in empowering women over the last 25 years.

• What is Kudumbashree in Kerala?

• What are the benefits of kudumbasree?

• What are Self Help Groups?

• Why Self Help Groups?

• What data’s and statistics says about SHGs in India?

• What is the mechanism by which self-help organisations facilitate the empowerment of women?

• Why SHG are a necessity in rural development?

• What is the Role of SHGs in Women Empowerment and Fighting Poverty?

• ‘The expansion in the SHG movement’s scope, from social mobilisation and financial inclusion objectives to economic development, is an organic step in the livelihoods chain’-Comment

• For Your Information-Launched in 1998 by the then CPI(M)-led government in Kerala as a sequel to the People’s Plan Programme, an experiment in decentralisation of powers to local governments with a focus on local-level planning, Kudumbashree, with a current strength of 45 lakh women in 3 lakh neighbourhood groups (NHGs), has flourished irrespective of the government in power – no mean feat for a state whose politics is known to be deeply partisan.
Besides serving as a permanent link between people and local self-government in the state, Kudumbashree has helped hundreds of women step out of their homes and transition into politics and social life.
After the state introduced 33 per cent reservation for women in three-tier local bodies, it was to Kudumbashree members – usually outspoken, confident women with close links to the neighbourhood – that political parties turned to for potential candidates. By the time the reservation was hiked to 50 per cent in 2010, Kudumbashree had helped hundreds of women take the electoral plunge.
Most women panchayat members in the state have risen from the Kudumbashree network, having been office-bearers of the Area Development Societies (ADS) or Community Development Societies (CDS) of the programme – the two levels of the mission after the NHG that’s the basic unit. It is no surprise then that when elections to Kudumbashree’s ADS and CDS were held across Kerala earlier this year, political parties enthusiastically lobbied to ensure that their nominees got elected as chairpersons.
Over the years, one of the major initiatives of the mission has been the micro-credit scheme that has freed thousands of families from the clutches of local money lenders. During the pandemic, banks in Kerala provided Rs 1,917 crore as interest-free credit to 25 lakh Kudumbashree members. Kudumbashree NHGs in the state have a deposit of Rs 5,500 crore in Kerala banks.
The mission has also led to women members venturing into organic farming, tourism, agri-business, poultry, food processing and several micro-enterprises. The state mission has an e-commerce platform for marketing of Kudumbashree products.
Earlier this year, Amrutham Nutrimix, a branded nutritional food mix produced and distributed by Kudumbashree for children at anganwadis, had bagged the Glenmark Nutrition Award for 2022 that was organised in partnership with the UN’s World Food Programme. As many as 241 units under Kudumbashree produce 18,000 metric tonnes of this nutritional food every year.
As part of Kerala’s ‘hunger-free’ project, since 2020, Kudumbashree members have been running over a thousand ‘janakeya hotels’ or canteens in all local bodies that provide food at Rs 20 a plate.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:  

📍Self Help Groups: What should be next for women-led entrepreneurship in rural India?

📍Kudumbashree women drive Kerala’s ‘hunger-free’ project through Rs 20 meals


Place the child at the centre


Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Madhu Mehra: The 283rd report of the Law Commission of India (LCI), which has advised against tinkering with the existing age of consent under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, is a lost opportunity. The judicial references called for reviewing the criteria for the age of consent to sexual activity, to mitigate the “gross injustice in cases of statutory rape where de facto consent is present”.

• Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012- Know the Salient features of the Act and its amendment

• Who is regarded as child as per the provisions of POCSO Act, 2012?

• Why Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012?

• What are the challenges associated with child sexual abuse?

• What are the Initiatives, legislations and laws taken by the Government of India in this direction?

• What are the Rights of a child in India as per the Indian Constitution?

• What is ‘Age of Consent’?

• According to the Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO) Act of 2012, what age is specified as the “age of consent”?

• Recently, Chief Justice of India D.Y. Chandrachud urged Parliament to review the age of consent under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO) Act, 2012-Why?

• What 283rd report of the Law Commission of India (LCI) said about Age of Consent?

• The LCI recommendations is flawed on three counts-What are they?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:  

📍‘POCSO Act not meant to criminalise consenting young adult relationships’

📍Explained: How the POCSO Act has been amended

📍POCSO report to law minister: Law panel says keep consent age 18, but take less severe look when kids in 16-18


Unemployment rate drops to 6.6% in urban areas in Q1


Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development

Main Examination:

• General Studies‐ III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment

• General Studies III: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Urban unemployment rate in April-June, the first quarter of this fiscal, slid to 6.6 per cent, the quarterly bulletin of Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) on Monday showed. Even though the unemployment rate for urban areas, which was at the lowest level since the launch of the PLFS bulletin in 2018, nearly 14 states recorded a higher urban unemployment rate than the national average.

• What is called unemployment rate?

• What is the unemployment rate formula?

• Unemployment in India-Types (Open Unemployment, Disguised Unemployment, Seasonal Unemployment, Cyclical Unemployment etc.)

• For Your Information- Unemployment rate is defined as the percentage of persons unemployed among the persons in the labour force. The urban unemployment PLFS is based on current weekly status approach, under which a person is considered unemployed if he/she did not work even for one hour on any day during the week but sought or was available for work at least for one hour on any day during the period. Labour force according to CWS is the number of persons either employed or unemployed on an average in a week preceding the date of survey. For males, the urban unemployment rate, based on current weekly status for persons above 15 years, declined to 5.9 per cent in the April-June quarter from 6.0 per cent in the previous quarter and 7.1 per cent in the year-ago period. For females also the unemployment rate eased to 9.1 per cent in April-June from 9.2 per cent in the previous quarter and 9.5 per cent in the year-ago period. Employment of both males and females, however, increased in self-employed categories such as own account worker, helper in household enterprise.
Unemployment rate for youth for urban females in the age group 15-29 years went up to 23.4 per cent in April-June from 22.9 per cent in the previous quarter but fell from 23.9 per cent in the year-ago period. For urban males in the 15-29 years age group, the unemployment rate went up to 15.9 per cent in April-June from 15.6 per cent in the previous quarter, but was lower than 17.4 per cent in April-June 2022.
In the urban areas, states/UTs which recorded higher than national average unemployment rate included Himachal Pradesh (13.8 per cent), Rajasthan (11.7 per cent), Chhattisgarh (11.2 per cent), Jammu and Kashmir (10.9 per cent) and Kerala (10 per cent). States/UTs which posted a lower-than-national average unemployment rate were Delhi (2.7 per cent), Gujarat (2.8 per cent), West Bengal (4.4 per cent), Bihar (6.1 per cent), Maharashtra and Haryana (6.5 per cent each).
The Ministry said that the key labour market indicators of Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR), Worker Population Ratio (WPR) and unemployment rates improved in urban areas in the April-June quarter for persons of age 15 years and above compared to the pre-pandemic period. “LFPR for persons of age 15 years and above in CWS ranged from 46.2 per cent to 47.8 per cent during the pre-pandemic period. LFPR during April-June 2023 was 48.8 per cent which is higher than the labour force participation rate observed in the quarters covered in the pre-pandemic period.”

• India’s unemployment rate in Urban and Rural Areas-Present Status

• Why unemployment is more in the urban areas as compared to the rural areas?

• What do you understand by Labour Force and Labour Force participation rate (LFPR)?

• Female Labour Force Participation Rate-Know about this in detail

• Employment Rate (ER) and Unemployment Rate (UER)-Know in Detail

• What do you understand by “Informal economy” and “Unorganised Sector”?

• What Is the Unemployment Rate? How it is Calculated by CMIE?

• Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE)-Role and Under which Ministry/Organisation?

• Reasons for rise in Unemployment Rate?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍 Unemployed Indians


Gaza, a history of war


Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-In January 2018, Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu joined Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Teen Murti Chowk in the heart of New Delhi to pay homage to Indian soldiers who fell in the Battle of Haifa in Israel a century ago.

The chowk was renamed Teen Murti Haifa Chowk, its three statues commemorating the heroism of the lancers from Jodhpur, Mysore, and Hyderabad who were part of the Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade, and had distinguished themselves in the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World War I.

• What is Gaza Strip or Gaza Patti?

• Map Work– Gaza Strip

• What is West Bank?

• In which year, India recognition Palestine?

• Israel-Palestine Conflict-what you know so far?

• What was the two state solution?

• Why the two state solution was difficult to achieve?

• What has been the Global Stand on Israel -Palestine Conflict?

• How India see Israel-Palestine Conflict?

• What is India’s political attitude towards Israel?

• What is India’s political attitude towards Palestine?

• What Is Hamas?

• For Your Information-Hamas is the largest Palestinian militant Islamist group and one of the two major political parties in the region. Currently, it governs more than two million Palestinians in the Gaza Strip. The organisation, however, is also known for its armed resistance against Israel
Hamas as a whole, or in some cases its military wing, is designated a terrorist group by Israel, the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom, and other countries.
Hamas is essentially “the internal metamorphosis” of the Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood, which was established in Jerusalem in 1946, according to the book, ‘Hamas: A Beginner’s Guide’, by Khaled Al Hroub, professor of Middle Eastern Studies at Northwestern University of Qatar.
“The Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood remained on the margins of Palestinian politics for decades till the 1980s and the reason for this was their strategy, which was non-confrontational… They believed they needed to Islamise the Palestinian society and it was a prerequisite for an engagement with the wider battle against Israel. In brief, they didn’t use armed struggle,” Khaled told Al Jazeera in an interview.
But in 1987, when the first Palestinian intifada took place, the organisation decided to transform itself — and “established Hamas as an adjunct organisation with the specific mission of confronting the Israeli occupation,” the professor wrote in his book.
The main reason for Hamas’ creation was a deep sense of failure that had been set within the Palestinian national movement by the late 1980s. This primarily happened after the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) — involved in the armed struggle against Israel from the mid-1960s to ‘liberate Palestine’ — made two massive concessions.
Hamas gained prominence after it opposed the Oslo Peace Accords signed in the early 1990s between Israel and the PLO, the body representing most Palestinians. The accords aimed to bring about Palestinian self-determination, in the form of a Palestinian state alongside Israel.

• What are the group’s origins?

• How is Hamas funded?

• How do Palestinians view Hamas?

• How does Hamas challenge Israel?

• Map Work-Israel, Palestine and Gaza Strip

• What are the realistic possibilities for Netanyahu and Israel?

• Why is the current violence being compared with the Yom Kippur war?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Tensions at Lebanon border too: Israel trades fire with Hezbollah

📍Arc of India’s ties with Israel



📍Israel’s moment of reckoning


📍Under pressure: Israel-Hamas war casts its shadow

How marriage, parenthood, and the pill impact women in the workforce


Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Claudia Goldin, Professor of Economics at Harvard University, has won the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for 2023 — popularly referred to as the Nobel prize in Economics. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which adjudicates on the matter, stated that Goldin has been awarded the prize “for having advanced our understanding of women’s labour market outcomes”.

Before her, only two women scholars — Elinor Ostrom in 2009 and Esther Duflo in 2019 — had won this honour since 1969, when this award was instituted. This is only the 26th time when this prize has been awarded to a single laureate. The award carries a prize money of 11 million Swedish kronor (or Rs 8.3 crore).

• Who is Claudia Goldin?

• Why she has won?

• For Your Information-While explaining why the Academy chose Goldin, the jury noted that Goldin had provided “the first comprehensive account of women’s earnings and labour market participation through the centuries. Her research reveals the causes of change, as well as the main sources of the remaining gender gap.”
The fact is that world over, women are vastly underrepresented in the labour market. In other words, compared with men, a lower percentage of women come out of home demanding work and a lower percentage hold jobs. Moreover, when they do join the workforce, they end up earning less than men.
What explains these results? What causes women to join the workforce and what causes them to leave it? Is it a linear relationship between economic growth and women’s involvement in the labour market? In other words, does the proportion of women with jobs always rise when an economy grows, or can it fall as well? What about the role of education, marriage and child birth? Similarly, how and why does the pay structure differ between men and women?
All these are important questions for any economy and its policymakers. To answer these, Goldin started looking at historical data in the United States. “Claudia Goldin has trawled the archives and collected over 200 years of data from the US, allowing her to demonstrate how and why gender differences in earnings and employment rates have changed over time,” said the Academy. What she found fundamentally changed the world’s understanding.
For instance, before Goldin’s path-breaking book was published in 1990, it was widely believed — based only on data from the 20th century — that there was a clear positive association between economic growth and the number of women in paid employment. But Goldin’s study showed this was not true.
“Goldin showed that female participation in the labour market did not have an upward trend over this entire period, but instead forms a U-shaped curve. The participation of married women decreased with the transition from an agrarian to an industrial society in the early nineteenth century, but then started to increase with the growth of the service sector in the early twentieth century. Goldin explained this pattern as the result of structural change and evolving social norms regarding women’s responsibilities for home and family,” said the Academy.
Similarly, Goldin demonstrated that access to the contraceptive pill played an important role by offering new opportunities for career planning.
On the topic of the earnings gap between men and women, data shows that despite modernisation, economic growth, and rising proportions of employed women in the 20th century, for a long period of time the earnings gap hardly closed.
“According to Goldin, part of the explanation is that educational decisions, which impact a lifetime of career opportunities, are made at a relatively young age. If the expectations of young women are formed by the experiences of previous generations – for instance, their mothers, who did not go back to work until the children had grown up – then development will be slow,” the Nobel citation said.
Historically, much of the gender gap in earnings could be explained by differences in education and occupational choices. However, Goldin has shown that the bulk of this earnings difference is now between men and women in the same occupation, and that it largely arises with the birth of the first child.
“Understanding women’s role in the labour market is important for society. Thanks to Claudia Goldin’s groundbreaking research we now know much more about the underlying factors and which barriers may need to be addressed in the future,” said Jakob Svensson, Chair of the Committee for the Prize in Economic Sciences.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:  

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📍Economics Nobel 2023: How Claudia Goldin shed light on the status of women in the workforce

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